Circumcision and Cervical Cancer

Last updated 1/13/2022

The studies listed below demonstrate that circumcision does not prevent cervical cancer:

  1. Lilienfeld AM, Graham S. Validity of determining circumcision status by questionnaire as related to epidemiological studies of cancer of cervix. J Nat Cancer Inst 1958;21:713-20.
  2. Wynder EL, Licklider SD. The question of circumcision. Cancer 1960;13:442-5.
  3. Wynder EL, Mantel N, Licklider SD. Statistical considerations on circumcision and cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1960;79:1026-30.
  4. Jones EG, MacDonald I, Brewslow L. A study of epidemiological factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1958;76:1-10.
  5. Stern E, Dixon WJ. Cancer of the cervix: a biometric approach to etiology. Cancer 1961;14:153-60.
  6. Aitken-Swan J, Baird D. Circumcision and cancer of the cervix. Br J Cancer 1965;19:217-27.
  7. Abou-Daoud KT. Epidemiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri in Lebanese Christians and moslems. Cancer 1967;20:1706-14.
  8. Stern E, Lachenbruch PA. Circumcision information in a cancer detection center population. J Chronic Dis 1968;21:117-24.
  9. Christopherson WM. The geographic distribution of cervix cancer and its possible implications. J Ir Med Assoc 1968;61:1-3.
  10. Malhotra SL. A study of carcinoma of uterine cervix with special reference to its causation and prevention. Br J Cancer 1971;25:62-71.
  11. Terris M, Wilson F, Nelson JH Jr. Relation of circumcision to cancer of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1973117:1056-66.
  12. Russell AE. Possible etiologies of cancer of the cervix other than herpes virus. Cancer Res 1973;33:1485-90.
  13. Harington JS. Epidemiology and aetiology of cancer of the uterine cervix including the detection of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the human vaginal vault S Afr Med J 1975;49:443-5.
  14. Persaud V. Geographical pathology of cancer of the uterine cervix. Trop Geogr Med 1977;29:335-45.
  15. Sumithran E. Rarity of cancer of the cervix in the Malaysian Orang Asli despite the presence of known risk factors. Cancer 1977;39:1570-2.
  16. Naik KG. Cervical carcinoma in Zambia. Int Surg 1977;62:110-1.
  17. Megafu U. Cancer of the genital tract among the Ibo women in Nigeria. Cancer 1979;44:1875-8.
  18. Lee JP, Cuello C, Singh K. Review of the epidemiology of cervical cancer in the Pacific Basin. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1982;62:197-9.
  19. Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, Herrero R, Gaitan E, Tenorio F, de-Britton RC, Garcia M, Rawls WE. The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women. Int J Cancer 1989;44:199-203.

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