Circumcision and Hygiene

Last updated 12/31/2022

A list of articles demonstrating how the foreskin might enhance hygiene or how circumcision might raise the risk of infections.

  1. Jefferson G. The peripenic muscle; some observations on the anatomy of phimosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1916;23:177-81.
  2. Lakshmanan S, Parkash S. Human prepucesome aspects of structure and function. Indian J Surg 1980; 42:134-7.
  3. Delbanco E. Über das gehauwlufte Aufreten von Talgdrusen an der Innerflähe des Präputium. Monatshefte für praktishe Dermatologie 1904; 38:536-8.
  4. Hyman AB, Brownstein MD. Tyson’s “glands” sebaceous glands and papillomatosis penis. Arch Dermatol 1969;99:31-7.
  5. Piccinno R, Carrel C-F, Menni S. et al. sebacous glands mimicking molluscum contagiosum Acta Derm Venerol 1990;70:344-5.
  6. Krompecher St. Die Histologie der Absonderung fur Smegma Praeputi. Anatomischer Anzeiger 1932; 75:170-176.
  7. Koning M, Streekferk JG. Kleine Kwalen in de Husiartsgeneenkunde; Smegma en Fysiologische Fimose. Ned Tijdschr Groeskd 1995; 139: 1632-4.
  8. Parkash S, Rao R, Venkatesan K. et al. Sub-preputial wetness–its nature. Ann Nat Med Sci 1982;18:109-112.
  9. Ahmed A, Jones AW. Apocrine cystodenoma: a report of two cases occurring on the prepuce. Br J Derm 1969;81:899-901.
  10. Frolich E, Shaumberg-Lever F, Kissen C. Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human apocrine glands. J Cutan Pathol 1993; 20: 54-60.
  11. Ahmed AA, Nerdlind K, Schulzberg al. Immunoelectrochemical localization of IL-1 alpha-, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha-like immunoreactivities in human prepuce apocrine glands. Arch Dermatol Res 1995; 287:764-6.
  12. Neubert U, Lantze. Die Bakterielle Flora des Präeputial raumes. Hautarzt 1979; 30: 41-5.
  13. Birley HDL, Walker MM, Luzzie GA, et al. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis, association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourin Med 1993;69:400-3.
  14. Coppa GV, Gabriella O, Giorgi P, et al. Preliminary study of breastfeeding and bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Lancet 1990; 358:568-571.
  15. Mueller ER, Steinhardt G, Naseer S. The incidence of genitourinary tract abnormalities in circumcised and uncircumcised boys presenting with an initial urinary tract infection by 6 months of age. Pediatrics (Suppl) 1997;100:580.
  16. Van Howe RS. Variability in penile appearance and penile findings: a prospective study. Br J Urol 1997; 80: 776-782.
  17. Fergusson DM, Lawton JM, Shannon FT. Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8 year longitudinal study. Pediatrics 1988; 81:537-541.
  18. Enzenauer RW, Dotson CR, Leonard T. et al. Increased incidence of neonatal staphylococcal pyoderma in males. Mil Med 1984;149:408-410.
  19. Enzenauer RW, Dotson CR, Leonard T. et al.. Male predominance in persistent staphylococcal colonization and infection of the newborn. Hawaii Med J 1985;44:389-90, 392, 394-6.
  20. Sow PS, Diop BM, Barry HL, et al. Tétanus et practique traditionnelle à Dakar (à propos de 141 cas). Dakar Med 1993; 38:55-9.
  21. Hardy DB. Cultural practices contributing to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Africa. Rev Infect Dis 1987;9:1109-19.
  22. Phillips K, Ruttman T, Viljoen J. Flying doctors, saving costs. S Afr Med J 1996; 86:1557-8.
  23. Blass DP, Jr. Healey JJ, Waldhausen JHT. Necrotizing fasciitis after Plastibell circumcision. J Pediatr 1997;131;459-62.

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